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What happens to biomedical waste from hospitals?

Autoclaving The process of autoclaving involves steam sterilization. Instead of incineration, which can be expensive, autoclaving simply introduces very hot steam for a determined amount of time. At the end of the process, microorganisms have been destroyed, around 90% of materials are sanitized this way before being sent on to a landfill. Incineration The major benefits of incineration are that it is quick, easy, and simple. It effectively removes the waste entirely and safely removes any microorganisms. However, when burning hazardous materials, emissions can be particularly dangerous. Chemicals When it comes to liquid waste, chemical disinfection. Chlorine is a regular choice for this process and is introduced to liquid waste to kill microorganisms and pathogens. Chemical disposal can also be used for solid wastes, but it is recommended that they be ground first to ensure maximum decontamination. Liquid waste, once decontaminated, is then disposed into the sewer system. Microwaving During this process, waste is shredded, mixed with water, and then internally heated to kill microorganisms and other harmful elements. One of the main benefits of this process is the shredding aspect; it lowers the volume of biomedical waste, and it is reportedly more energy efficient to use this method than to incinerate. While it cant be used for all biomedical wastes, it can be utilized for a good 90% of it, just like autoclaving.

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